In 1962, President John F. Kennedy spoke at Rice University, where he said that America has to go to the moon, and that mankind cannot be deterred “in his quest for knowledge and progress.”
However, in reality, he actually didn’t care much about either knowledge or progress. According to reports, Kennedy had very little interest in space. He allegedly told an MIT professor that rockets were a waste of money.
Despite that, in 1961, he suddenly invested $25 billion in the “most ambitious space program in national history.”
“Kennedy didn’t propose it for the sake of science,” author and curator of the Smithsonian’s Apollo collection Teasel Muir-Harmony said. “It was really a demonstration of what the American industry was capable of and a demonstration of American values.”
Muir-Harmony has a new book out, “Operation Moonglow: A Political History of Project Apollo.” In it, she references recently dug up government documents that bring light to how media, propaganda, and foreign affairs influenced the space program.
The Apollo program was first created by the Eisenhower administration as a way to “contain Communism, align the world with the United States and shore up America’s power.”
However, America seemed to be losing the space race. The success of the Soviet Union’s Sputnik made the world view the USSR in a “very different light,” according to the United States Information Agency (USIA). A front-page New York Times headline in 1960 read, “US Survey Finds Others Consider Soviets Mightiest.” In 1961, the Soviets were the first to put a man in space.
Kennedy took office in 1961, and the government cranked up its public relations. Kennedy was “a man who perhaps better than any other president in our history, understood how foreign opinion worked, what molded it, what shaped it and how to shape it,” USIA Acting Director Donald Wilson says in Muir-Harmony’s book.
“The Soviet Union was relatively closed about what they were launching, when they were launching it and their technology,” says Muir-Harmony. “The US took a different tack, inviting the press to cover launches and sending spacecraft around the world.”
For example, in 1961, Freedom 7, the capsule that carried the first American into space, was exhibited in Paris and Rome. It attracted over a million visitors.
“Two young men soared into space early this year,” a USIA report to Congress said. “The Russian was the first one up, but the American’s achievement was more widely heard and even more widely believed.”
After John Glenn became the first man to orbit the earth in 1962, the USIA and the State Department chose cities that would best exhibit his capsule, Friendship 7.
Its first showing was in London, and thousands of people were turned away due to overcrowding. In Paris, people waited 5 hours, and the museum was forced to stay open until midnight.
In 1965, the astronauts themselves went on tour. Lyndon Johnson sent two Gemini astronauts to Paris.
In the summer of 1969, Apollo 11’s moon landing gave the world “one giant leap for mankind,” not to mention President Nixon a big opportunity.
Nixon timed a “diplomatic tour explicitly to take advantage of the international popularity of the moon landing,” Muir-Harmony wrote. His eight-country trip, named Operation Moonglow, showcased a concern for Asia and Eastern Europe and a commitment to achieve peace in Vietnam with the message that “if mankind can send men to the moon, then we can bring peace to the Earth.”
With Operation Moonglow as a distraction, Nixon and his national security advisor, Henry Kissinger, were able to have secret, back-channel meetings with the North Vietnamese that helped pave the way to ending the war.
As Kennedy had hoped, the space program went a long way toward improving America’s image and creating “a sense of goodwill.”
“The message that resonated with people around the world was not of US greatness and strength; it was of sharing and community and openness,” Muir-Harmoney said. “It required forgoing the message of nationalism in favor of global connectedness. For Apollo to ‘win hearts and minds,’ to advance US national interests, it had to be an achievement of and not for all humankind.”
393 thoughts on “Were Apollo Missions and The Moon Landing One Giant PR Stunt?”
Hi my loved one! I want to say that this post is amazing, great written and include almost all vital infos. I’d like to see extra posts like this .|
[url=https://strattera.store/]where can i buy strattera online[/url]
Thanks for finally writing about > Were Apollo Missions and The Moon Landing One Giant PR Stunt?
– Survival Update < Liked it!
The joyous sensation built within her body until it became too much, and she cried out and struggled against her bonds as her mind overflowed with bliss. It was like a floating on a golden river of joy with waves of pleasure lapping over her, an all-consuming delight encompassing her being.
I was able to find good information from your blog posts.|
Do you have a spam issue on this website; I also am a blogger, and I was wanting to know your situation; we have created some nice procedures and we are looking to swap solutions with others, be sure to shoot me an email if interested.|
Hello, i think that i saw you visited my blog so i came to return the want?.I am trying to find issues to enhance my web site!I assume its good enough to use some of your concepts!!|
Hello, its good paragraph about media print, we all know media is a enormous source of data.|
Muğla fethiye beylerine fethiye escort
If some one wishes to be updated with most up-to-date technologies therefore he must be pay a quick visit this website and be up to date everyday.|
It’s amazing for me to have a site, which is beneficial designed for my experience.
İzmir buca escort bayan bulma eşleşme bu adreste
[url=https://bactrim911.com/]bactrim cream generic[/url]
[url=http://doxycyclinepill.com/]doxycycline 100mg tabs[/url]
I am sure this post has touched all the internet viewers, its really really nice paragraph on building up new webpage.|
You could definitely see your skills in the work you write. The arena hopes for more passionate writers like you who aren’t afraid to say how they believe. At all times follow your heart.|
I’d like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog. I really hope to view the same high-grade blog posts by you later on as well. In fact, your creative writing abilities has motivated me to get my very own website now ;)|
İzmir buca escort bayanlarla sohbet et
Wow that was strange. I just wrote an extremely long comment but after I clicked submit my comment didn’t show up. Grrrr… well I’m not writing all that over again. Anyway, just wanted to say excellent blog!|
Excellent post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed! Extremely helpful info specifically the last part 🙂 I care for such information much. I was seeking this certain info for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.|
I have been surfing online more than 4 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours. It’s pretty worth enough for me. Personally, if all web owners and bloggers made good content as you did, the internet will be much more useful than ever before.|
I read this post fully regarding the difference of most recent and previous technologies, it’s amazing article.|
Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You definitely know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your blog when you could be giving us something enlightening to read?|
Hello this is kinda of off topic but I was wanting to know if blogs use WYSIWYG editors or if you have to manually code with HTML. I’m starting a blog soon but have no coding skills so I wanted to get advice from someone with experience. Any help would be greatly appreciated!|
thank you very post bro.
Magnificent items from you, man. I’ve take into account your stuff prior to and you’re simply too wonderful. I really like what you’ve acquired here, really like what you’re stating and the best way by which you assert it. You make it enjoyable and you still care for to stay it sensible. I can not wait to learn much more from you. This is really a tremendous web site.|
I do not know if it’s just me or if everybody else experiencing problems with your site. It seems like some of the written text within your posts are running off the screen. Can somebody else please comment and let me know if this is happening to them too? This could be a problem with my internet browser because I’ve had this happen before. Cheers|
buca escort bayanlar
Excellent post. I was checking constantly this blog and I’m impressed! Very useful info specially the last part 🙂 I care for such info much. I was looking for this particular information for a long time. Thank you and best of luck.|
It’s nearly impossible to find educated people for this topic, but you seem like you know what you’re talking about! Thanks|
Hey excellent website! Does running a blog like this take a great deal of work? I’ve no understanding of programming but I had been hoping to start my own blog soon. Anyways, should you have any suggestions or techniques for new blog owners please share. I understand this is off subject but I simply had to ask. Many thanks!|
Valuable information. Fortunate me I discovered your web site unintentionally, and I’m shocked why this twist of fate didn’t took place in advance! I bookmarked it.|
Excellent pieces. Keep writing such kind of information on your blog. Im really impressed by your blog.
Nice post. I learn something totally new and challenging on sites I stumbleupon everyday. It will always be helpful to read through articles from other authors and use a little something from their web sites. |
I am regular visitor, how are you everybody? This post posted at this web page is really fastidious.|
Hi there, after reading this amazing article i am as well cheerful to share my knowledge here with colleagues.|
Hey there! I know this is kind of off-topic, but I’d figured I’d ask.
Would you be interested in exchanging links or maybe guest authoring a
blog post or vice-versa? My blog goes over a lot of the same topics as yours,
and I believe we could greatly benefit from each
other. If you happen to be interested, feel free to shoot me an e-mail.
I look forward to hearing from you! Great blog by the way!
I don’t know if it’s just me or if perhaps everybody else experiencing problems with your website. It appears as though some of the written text on your posts are running off the screen. Can someone else please comment and let me know if this is happening to them too? This could be a problem with my web browser because I’ve had this happen previously. Appreciate it|
Hi it’s me, I am also visiting this site daily, this web site is genuinely good and the viewers are in fact sharing fastidious thoughts.|
It’s perfect time to make a few plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have learn this publish and if I may I want to suggest you some interesting things or advice. Perhaps you can write next articles regarding this article. I want to read even more issues approximately it!|